Compressor comparison for GHC binary distributions
Recently I noticed that GHC’s validation script spends a significant portion of its runtime preparing a compressed binary distribution with
xz. This perhaps shouldn’t be surprising as the build system uses the extremely aggressive
-9e flag set.
The obvious next question is what all of this
carbon emissionCPU time buys us. To quantify this I took an uncompressed GHC binary distribution tarball (around 1.1 gigabytes of tar’d binaries and some text) and compressed it with various configurations of
xz, recording the user-space runtime, final size, and maximum resident set size of each,
(for i in $(seq 1 9); do cat ghc-126.96.36.19960111-i386-centos67-linux.tar | /usr/bin/time -f "%U %M" -o time.log gzip -$i | wc -c >| size.log; echo "$i $(cat time.log) $(cat size.log)"; done) | tee results.log
After cleaning up the results I arrived at the following,
There aren’t many surprises here (with the usual caveats: this is an unscientific study of a particular workload, etc.),
xzcompresses better than
bzip2, which compresses better than
- Investing more time in compression helps all compressors, although to varying degrees
- Additional compression comes at a significant cost in the case of
- Perhaps most surprising,
xz -ehardly makes a difference, despite being significantly more expensive
xz’s improved compression does come at a significant cost in memory consumption; while all other compressors have a roughly constant memory consumption of a few megabytes,
xzcontinues to balloon as the compression level is raised, reaching nearly 700 megabytes at
Code and data.
The raw data of this study is available here. Results were plotted thusly.
import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as pl d = np.genfromtxt('comparison.csv', names=True, dtype=None) uncomp_size = d['output_size_bytes'] d = d[1:] comp_ratio = 1. * d['output_size_bytes'] / uncomp_size compressors = np.unique(d['compressor']) print compressors for color, compressor in zip('rgbc', compressors): ds = d['compressor'] == compressor pl.scatter(d[ds]['user_time_sec'], comp_ratio[ds], color=color, label=compressor) pl.xlabel('user time (seconds)') pl.ylabel('compression ratio') pl.legend() pl.xlim(0, None) pl.show()