# First experiences debugging systemd

| tagged with
• systemd
• debugging

I use an Odroid XU running Debian Jessie as an ARM target for GHC and a variety of other projects. Recently Debian switched over to the infamous systemd init system. Up to this point I’ve had relatively little exposure to systemd, save the usual Internet fanaticism that inexplicably surrounds most projects associated with Lennart. The below documents my first experiences trying to troubleshoot a non-booting systemd installation.

Anyways, switching init systems on a small embedded board like the Odroid will inevitably come with a few sticking points. This was no exception. Indeed the machine came up with no network connection, although appeared to be responsive to keyboard input. Moreover, the board didn’t light up an external HDMI monitor.

A few solder joints later I had a serial terminal up and found that the machine was dumping me in the recovery console after a few minutes of waiting. Poking around for a few minutes with systemctl seemed to suggest that systemd was getting stuck bringing up a few mount units and some devices. One of the mount units was an NFS mount. ifconfig confirmed that eth0 was indeed still down and checking /etc/network/interfaces confirmed that the upgrade must have blown away the adapter configuration. A few lines in vim and a reboot later and the NFS mount was up.

Now remains the tricky ones: according to journalctl the dev-mmcblk0p1.device and dev-ttySAC2.device units apparently both time out,

Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Job dev-mmcblk0p1.device/start timed out.
Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Timed out waiting for device dev-mmcblk0p1.device.
Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Dependency failed for File System Check on /dev/mmcblk0p1.
Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Job dev-ttySAC2.device/start timed out.
Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Timed out waiting for device dev-ttySAC2.device.
Mar 14 18:02:02 odroid-jessie systemd[1]: Dependency failed for Serial Getty on ttySAC2.

Let’s start by looking at ttySAC2. Attempting to explicitly start the unit with systemctl start dev-ttySAC2.device just hangs. systemctl show dev-ttySAC2.device shows a bunch of details,

Id=dev-ttySAC2.device
Names=dev-ttySAC2.device
BoundBy=serial-getty@ttySAC2.service
Before=serial-getty@ttySAC2.service
Description=dev-ttySAC2.device
ActiveState=inactive
InactiveExitTimestampMonotonic=0
ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=0
ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic=0
InactiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=0
CanStart=no
CanStop=no
CanIsolate=no
StopWhenUnneeded=no
RefuseManualStart=no
RefuseManualStop=no
AllowIsolate=no
DefaultDependencies=yes
OnFailureJobMode=replace
IgnoreOnIsolate=yes
IgnoreOnSnapshot=yes
JobTimeoutUSec=1min 30s
ConditionResult=yes
ConditionTimestamp=Sat 2015-03-14 18:04:54 CET
ConditionTimestampMonotonic=514986487
Transient=no

Unfortunately these details show no indication of why the unit can’t be started.

systemctl cat dev-mmcblk0p1.device suggests that these .device units are no ordinary units. This is apparently now the time to brush up on the intricacies of systemd units so I run off to the systemd.unit manpage which within a few paragraphs sends me to the systemd.device manpage. While short, the document seems quite effective in suggesting the next obvious step,

systemd will dynamically create device units for all kernel devices that are marked with the “systemd” udev tag (by default all block and network devices, and a few others). This may be used to define dependencies between devices and other units. To tag a udev device, use “TAG+=”systemd"" in the udev rules file, see udev(7) for details.

Perhaps the ttySAC2 device isn’t getting the proper udev tag. Sadly, udev disagrees,

\$ udevadm info /dev/ttySAC2
P: /devices/platform/exynos4210-uart.2/tty/ttySAC2
N: ttySAC2
E: DEVNAME=/dev/ttySAC2
E: DEVPATH=/devices/platform/exynos4210-uart.2/tty/ttySAC2
E: ID_MM_CANDIDATE=1
E: MAJOR=204
E: MINOR=66
E: SUBSYSTEM=tty
E: TAGS=:systemd:
E: USEC_INITIALIZED=472111

and indeed /lib/udev/rules.d/99-systemd.rules includes the appropriate rule,

SUBSYSTEM=="tty", KERNEL=="tty[a-zA-Z]*|hvc*|xvc*|hvsi*|ttysclp*|sclp_line*|3270/tty[0-9]*", TAG+="systemd"

Well, there goes that hypothesis.

After some amount of Googling I find a StackExchange answer which seems to fit the bill, suggesting that my kernel is too old (3.4, it is quite old). Compiling a new kernel indeed allows the machine to boot. Yay!